Neural and Cognitive Architectures Workshop '16

The Budapest Semester in Cognitive Science and the Theoretical Neuroscience and
Complex Systems Group of the Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences

Workshop on Neural and Cognitive Architectures

Date: September 30th, 2016
Venue: Wigner Research Centre for Physics, "KFKI Campus" III bldg.
RSVP to vintyister@gmail.com by September 28th, 12am!!

10.05-10.10: Péter Érdi (WRCP - BSCS):Opening remarks
10.10-10.50 Vassilis Cutsuridis (Institute of Molecular Biology and
Biotechnology,Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH);
Heraklion, Crete (Greece): Cognitive decision making models
10.50-11.00 Discussion
11.00-11.10 Break
11.10-11.50 András Lőrincz (Neural Information Processing Group, Eotvos
University): Cartesian Abstraction
11.50-12.00 Discussion
12.00 - 13.30: Break
13.30-14.10 Vaibhav Diwadkar (Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne
State Univ. Detroit, MI, USA): Functional and dysfunctional cognitive
neuro-architectures: Evidence from functional and effective connectivity
analyses of fMRI data
14.10-14.20 Discussion
14.20-15.00 Zoltan Jakab, ELTE, Institute of Psychologíy for Special
Education: Quantifíing with mental files
15.00-15.10 Discussion
15.10-16.00 Panel Discussion: What did we learn? (Panelists: TBA)
16.00-16.05. 10.05-10.10: Péter Érdi (WRCP - BSCS):Closing remarks

Abstracts:

10.10-10.50 Vassilis Cutsuridis (Institute of Molecular Biology and
Biotechnology,Foundation for Research and Technology
- Hellas(FORTH); Heraklion, Crete (Greece): Cognitive decision making
models

Response inhibition is the ability to override a planned or an already
initiated response. It is the hallmark of executive control as its deficits
favour impulsive behaviours which may be detrimental to an individual’s
life. In this seminar I will talk about behavioural and computational
guises of response inhibition. I will focus only on inhibition of
oculomotor responses. I will first discuss a behavioural paradigm of
response inhibition in eye movement research, namely the antisaccade task,
proven to be a useful tool for the study of response inhibition in
cognitive neuroscience and psychopathology. I will then briefly describe
the neural mechanisms of response inhibition in this behavioural paradigm.
Computational cognitive models of decision making that embody a hypothesis
and/or a theory of mechanisms underlying performance in the behavioural
paradigm will be discussed. All models assume the race of decision processes.
It has been shown that response latency is a stochastic process
and has been proven to be an important measure of the cognitive control
processes involved in response stopping in healthy and patient groups.
Finally, I will talk about the inhibitory deficits in different brain
diseases including schizophrenia and OCD.

11.10-11.50 András Lőrincz (Neural Information Processing Group, Eotvos
University); Cartesian Abstraction

It has been long debated how the so called cognitive map develops in rat
hippocampus. The question is relevant since the hippocampus is the key
component of the medial temporal lobe memory system, responsible for
forming episodic memory and, in humans, also for forming declarative
memory, the memory for facts and rules that serves cognition. There is a
large number of models spanning from functional to the neuronal level
modeling. Here, a novel idea is put forth; we suggest that the cognitive
map is a non-linear projection of the egocentric observations to a
Cartesian allothetic factor,

13.30-14.10 Vaibhav Diwadkar (Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne
State Univ. Detroit, MI, USA):

Functional and dysfunctional cognitive neuro-architectures: Evidence from
functional and effective connectivity analyses of fMRI data
Discovering brain-behavior relationships from fMRI data remains a
challenging endeavor (Logothetis, 2008). Regional brain activations do not
provide sufficient constraints to distinguish between cognitive domains or
tasks, because different cognitive tasks can modulate activity in the same
brain region. As a result, function to structure relationships in the brain
have been termed as “regressive” (Park & Friston, 2013). However,
activation-based analyses depend on basic models of brain function that do
not interrogate fMRI data for patterns of inter-regional connectivity
(Silverstein et al., 2016). In this talk, we motivate the value of
functional and effective connectivity analyses of fMRI time-series signals
(Friston, 2011) in understanding functional and dysfunctional cognitive
neuro-architectures. Such analyses allow us to discovery network dynamics
at macro-scopic (temporal and spatial) scales that are driven by cognitive
task demands. We will present data from multiple cognitive/behavioral
domains (memory, motor and attention) and in healthy and pathological
populations (including schizophrenia, psychosis and obsessive compulsive
disorder).

14.20-15.00 Zoltan Jakab, ELTE, Institute of Psychologíy for Special
Education: Quantifíing with mental files

The theory of mental files is a theory of concepts which emphasizes that
concepts have two functions in cognition: grounding mental representations
to objects in the external world (aka reference), and accumulating
information about their objects/referents. This theory has been proposed by
a number of philosoophers including Jerry Fodor and Francois Recanati.
Recanati’s recent work on mental files has some applications in the area of
theory of mind development. Josef Perner and his colleagues contend that
Recanati’s theory supplemented by a few developmental principles accounts
for data on children’s false belief attribution better than any of the
earlier accounts. In our ongoing research we do not contest this claim;
instead we use the theory to interpret data on concept combination. To date
relatively little research has been conducted on how children can combine
concepts from different domains. To approach this issue we have chosen two
areas of knowledge: social understanding, and numerical cognition. We
devised tasks that require children to apply their numerical knowledge in
the context of false belief attribution and physical perspective-taking. We
found that these combination tasks are unexpectedly difficult: most
children succeed in false-belief attribution by 5 years of age, and at this
same age children also understand integers to a considerable extent. Still
in our false belief plus counting tasks only about 50 per cent of 8-9-year-
old subjects succeeded; physical perspective taking combined with counting
was solved by about 75 per cent of the same subjects. We interpret these
findings in light of an extension of mental file theory.